Research by: Ardvin Kester S. Ong, Yogi Tri Prasetyo, Fae Coleen Lagura, Rochelle Nicole Ramos, Keenan Mark Sigua, Jomy Anne Villas, Reny Nadlifatin, Michael Nayat Young, & John Francis T. Diaz
This study determines factors affecting passenger satisfaction with tricycle services by utilizing the SERVQUAL approach coupled with the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The tricycle is one of the most essential modes of public transportation in the Philippines. A tricycle is defined as a motor vehicle that operates as public transportation in the Philippines. Compared to the tricycles available in other countries, this motorcycle has an attached cab manufactured to handle 4-5 passengers depending on their size at a time, operated by a tricycle driver with the purpose of transporting people to a specified destination at a cheap price. This approach is designed to capture consumer expectations and perceptions of a service such as the different modes of public transportation.
The lack of studies on the tricycle users’ passenger satisfaction posed the necessity for researchers to address this problem as it is one of the essential and widely utilized modes of transportation in the Philippines. SERVQUAL was used as an instrument as it is widely used in the transportation industry for measuring service quality. Several factors such as assurance, empathy, reliability, responsiveness, tangibles, passenger expectations, passenger satisfaction, passenger loyalty, and future intentions were analyzed simultaneously by utilizing SEM. Both models are widely utilized in measuring service quality and enhancing public transportation. This model is composed of 5 main dimensions: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy.
A total of 654 tricycle passengers answered an online questionnaire that consisted of 62 questions. This data is supplemented by reaching a customer-oriented 33 perspective to help in attracting new users to try the service and retain the current passengers at hand as a better understanding of what a passenger wants and expects is assured. SEM indicated that responsiveness was found to be the most significant factor in passenger satisfaction, followed by tangibles, empathy, and passenger satisfaction. Interestingly, assurance and reliability were found not to have significant effects on passenger satisfaction. It could be deduced that passengers utilizing the tricycle as a form of public transportation are mainly concerned about the cleanliness of the tricycle and the driver, getting to their needed destination, reduced travel time, convenience, cheap, and reliable.
It is recommended that the improvement of the tricycles should focus more on the sharp and fast service of the tricycle drivers towards the passenger (responsiveness), the materials and comfort the tricycle gives to the user (tangibles), understanding and attitude of tricycle drivers towards the passengers (empathy), and meeting the standards and demands of a passenger towards the tricycle and tricycle drivers (passenger expectations).
This study is the first complete study that explored the satisfaction of tricycle users in the Philippines. The findings can be utilized as a theoretical foundation, particularly for enhancing the service quality and satisfaction of tricycles as public transportation. In addition, the approach can also be utilized to evaluate other vehicles in other countries. The model of the study could also be utilized by other researchers to evaluate other modes of transportation. At the same time, the findings of the study can be used as a comparison by other researchers in the same field.
To cite this article: Ong, A. K. S., Prasetyo, Y. T., Lagura, F. C., Ramos, R. N., Sigua, K. M., Villas, J. A., Nadlifatin, R., Young, M. N, & Diaz, J. F. T. (2023). Determining Tricycle Service Quality and Satisfaction in the Philippine Urban Areas: A SERVQUAL Approach. Cities, 137, 104339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2023.104339
To access this article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2023.104339
About the Journal
Cities publishes articles on many aspects of urban planning and policy. It distinguishes itself by providing an international and interdisciplinary platform for the exchange of ideas and information among urban planners, policy makers and analysts, and urbanists from all disciplines.
The primary aims of the journal are to analyze and assess past and present urban development and management as a reflection of effective, ineffective, and non-existent planning policies, and the promotion of the implementation of appropriate urban policies in both the developed and the developing world.
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